Obesity has become one of the most challenging diseases that people struggle to be cured from. Diet and exercise are the first treatment options; however, they fail to provide measurable outcomes among moderately and severely obese people. Numerous studies exposed that bariatric surgery & weight-loss surgery, is the appropriate procedure to help those people lose weight and improve their health score.
In fact, bariatric surgery is a life-changing technique by which candidate people have a higher quality of life. Usually, obese people develop serious conditions by time since moderate-severe obesity is a risk factor for different diseases that include but not limited to: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, arthritis, breathing problems, and infertility. In contrast to bariatric surgery, people going under this surgical procedure experience a great improvement in their health status. In addition to its guaranteed weight loss, it lowers high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Gradually, it eliminates the breathing problems, stops the disease progression, and reduces risks of developing new serious conditions.
Candidates of bariatric surgery should be meeting the following criteria:
- They should be between 18-65 years old. Nevertheless, younger or older patients are considered in accordance to case-by-case basis
- They should have followed a medically supervised weight-loss program with no success
- They should have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 and more, or a BMI of 30-39.9 with a presence of one or more chronic condition. BMI= weight (kg) / height (m) x height (m) Body weight status according to BMI:
|18-24.9||Normal body weight|
|30-34.9||Moderate Obesity class 1|
|35-39.9||Moderate Obesity class 2|
|40 and up||Severe obesity|
Adjustable gastric band, sleeve , and gastric bypass are the types of bariatric surgery promising to reduce approximately 30-35%, 35-40%, and 40-45% of the total body weight respectively.
The basic principle is to reduce portions of food consumed; thus, a reduction in total calorie intake occurs. Evidence showed that gastric bypass is the only cure for type 2 diabetes; diabetic obese people who go under this surgery tend to discontinue their medication over time. The common complications of bariatric surgery are manageable; bariatric surgery is safe and life saving for candidates.
Minimal Access Surgery
Minimal Access Surgery is completed with one or more small incisions instead of a large incision. The surgeon passes a telescope with video camera through a small incision (usually only ¼’’ long) into a body cavity. He/she then views the surgery on a TV monitor. Surgical instruments are then passed through other similar little incisions. The surgeon examines and operates on the area in question by viewing magnified images projected on video screen. When a telescope is used to operate on the abdomen, the procedure is called laparoscopy. When it’s used in chest the procedure is called thoroscopy and when used in joints, it is called arthroscopy.
What type of surgery can be done laparoscopically?
Most of the abdominal surgical procedures can be done laparoscopically. In some cases there are other factors that might make it possible to do the surgery laparoscopically. A patient should discuss this with a surgeon to make a final decision about the laparoscopic possibilities. For many diseases in the abdomen requiring surgery, a high percentage of cases can be done laparoscopically.
- Laparoscopic Appendectomy.
- Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery.
- Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair.
- Laparoscopic Lymph Node Biopsy.
- Laparoscopic Procedure for liver cysts.
- Laparoscopic Splenectomy.
- Diagnostic Laparoscopy.
- Laparoscopy Hiatus Hernia.
- Laparoscopy PUH repair.
- Laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair.
- Laparoscopic repair of Hiatal Hernias.
- Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for obese patients.
- Laparoscopic Adrenal surgery.
- Laparoscopic drainage of pseudo-pancreatic cyst.
- Single incision Laparoscopic surgery.
- Stapled haemorrhoidectomy
Why should be the surgery done laparoscopically?
The most important reason for most patients is a quicker recovery. In many cases of abdominal surgery, the recovery time can be reduced by more than half. For some types of surgery the incidence of complications, such as infection in the incision, is reduced with laparoscopic surgery.
There are many advantages to the patients undergoing keyhole surgery when compared with an open procedure.
- Reduced blood loss: reduces the chance of needing a blood transfusion.
- Smaller incision: reduces pain and shortens recovery time.
- Less pain less medication.
- Reduced infections due to reduced exposure of internal organs to the possible external contaminants.
- Relatively small scar since the keyhole surgery involves a small opening it leaves relatively very small scar.
- Quick ambulation.
- Quicker resumption of diet.
- Shorter hospital stay.
- Quicker return to normal activities.
- Less impairment of pulmonary function.
- Less suppression of the immune system.
Though the procedure times are slightly longer the hospital stay is less which leads to a faster return to the routine life. Keyhole surgery calls for extensive investment in probes and miniaturized equipment, and training of surgeons and surgical teams. But it offers powerful benefits to patients that make operations less dreaded.